Study of Fish Markets and their Pattern of Raipur City

 

Sushant Punekar1, Swati Sahu2, Asit Kumar3, Arvind Agrawal4*

1BLP Govt. Postgraduate College, Mhow, Indore (M.P.)

2Govt. K.H. College, Abhanpur

3Govt. RVRS Girls College, Kawardha (CG)

4Human Resource Development Centre, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur - 492010

*Corresponding Author E-mail: dr.arvind02@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The state of Chhattisgarh is endowed with rich and varied inland fisheries resources, which include ponds, reservoirs and rivers. Chhattisgarh, the 26th State of India, was carved out of Chhattisgarh on November 1, 2000. Located in central India it covers an area of 135,133 sq km. Raipur is the capital of Chhattisgarh. Chhattisgarh is bordered by Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the south, Orissa in the east and Chhattisgarh in the west.  Fishermen of this area are mostly involved various technologies in fisheries over a period of time by trial and error, continuous observations, experiences and evaluation to use the traditional practices in this field. The fishermen from rural area may an important role in establishing smoked fish and demand of dried prawn in market and also holding strong traditional marketing system for wet and dried prawn and do sell it round the year. The specific objectives of this study were to the availability, consumption and landing pattern of fishes, to find the available setting place and using their fish dressing equipments, carrier bags reasons for adopting traditional practices by fish traders, fishermen & fisherwomen in local fish market of Raipur town. The list of fish whole seller/traders, fish seller, fishermen & fisherwomen were prepared as respondents with the help of equal interval method of random sampling. The finding reveal that there is a good market, demand and price for almost all the Indian major carps, verities of indigenous local & catfishes. But, the supply is less as per demand and also poor due to environment of this local fish market. The major constraint of fish market under ownership of Municipal Corporation and also established at one place and no cement floor, storage facilities (Ice plant/ unit) nearly, high transportation charges, non-availability of skilled labor, and with non-availability of electric current regularly for freezing of fish were the important difficulties encountered by fish seller in market of Raipur town.  The development of this local fish market are expected to significantly contribute in reducing post harvest losses, enhance revenue and also improve the hygienic environmental effect and sanitary conditions in fish markets.

 

KEYWORDS: Traditional Practices, landing pattern, Food habit, Domestic Fish market, Fishermen.

 


I. INTRODUCTION:

Fishery sector Overview in INDIA:

Nearly half the fish consumed as food worldwide are raised on fish farms rather than caught in the wild. While in 1980, just 9% of the fish consumed by human beings came from aquaculture, now at least 43% of the fish contributed by aqua farming. That’s 45.5 million tonnes of farmed fish, worth 63 billion US dollars, eaten each year. Current freshwater and marine capture fisheries produce 95 million tonnes annually, of which 60 million tonnes is destined for human consumption. Globally, consumer demand for fish continues to climb, especially in affluent, developed nations which in 2004 imported 33 million tonnes of fish worth over 61 billion dollars – 81% of all fish imports that year, in value terms. FAO’s report estimates that an additional 40 million tonnes of aquatic food will be required by 2030 just for to maintain current levels of consumption. The only option for meeting future demand for fish is by inland farming . Aquaculture has been experiencing a boom since the mid 1980’s, sustaining a growth rate of around 8% per year. But levels of capture of fish in the wild have remained roughly stable since the mid – 1980’s, hovering around 90-93 million tonnes annually. There is little chance of any significant increases in catches beyond these levels, FAO says. The aggregate value of net fisheries exports from developing countries not exceeds the contributed value of net exports of coffee, tea, banana and sugar. Aquaculture could cover the gap between supply and demand, but there are also many forces, which could pull production in the opposite direction, making it difficult for the industry to grow substantially enough to meet demand in the decades to come. One serious bottleneck is the lack of investment capital for producers in the developing world. Another is shortage of land and freshwater for use in aquaculture. Rising energy costs also pose a problem, and environmental impacts and questions of products safety continue to require attention. Aquaculture offers a source of food that is rich in protein, essential fatty acids and vitamins and minerals. And fisheries sector offers a way to boost development by providing jobs, improving people’s income, and increasing returns on natural resource use.

 

India is now the third largest producer of fish and the second largest producer of fresh water fish in the world. Fish production has increased from 4.16million tonnes (2.45million tonnes for marine and 1.71million tonnes for inland fisheries) in 1991-92 to 7.12million tones (2.92million tonnes for marine and 4.20 million tonnes for inland fisheries) in 2007-08 The share of fisheries sector in agricultural GDP has gone increasing. Presently (2008) contributes about 1.07% of total countries GDP and 4.70% of GDP of agriculture.14.6million persons are engaged in this sector (Livestock census, 2003). During 2007-08 Fishery sector has produced 7.60million tones (marine 3.90 million t and inland 3.70 million t). The country’s fresh water resources consist of 195210 kilometers of rivers and canals, 1.66million hectares of large and medium reservoirs and 1.48 ha of minor reservoirs, 2.41million hectares of freshwater ponds and lakes ,1.2million ha of brackish water ponds and about 0.1 million hectares of lagoons and 0.2 million ha of flood plain wet lands 0.72 ha of upland lakes 30million ha of secondary saline area. Country’s current ( 2008-09) fish production is 7.6million t out of which fresh water aquaculture contributes 3.70million t and 0.10 million t. and enhancement (stocking of reservoirs, lakes and wetlands) produces 0.80million t.(Sugunan, 2009).

 

In this sector, Development of Freshwater Aquaculture, Development of Brackish water Aquaculture, Development of Coldwater Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Hilly Regions, Development of Water-logged Areas into Aquaculture Estate, Utilization of Inland Saline/Alkaline Soils for Aquaculture and Inland Capture Fisheries (Reservoirs/Rivers etc.) is promoted by the Govt. A new component (Seventh component) called Innovative Projects has been added in 2008 - 09 for implementation in the 11th Five Year Plan. The country is having 2.4 million potential area for fresh water aquaculture out of which only 40% i.e. 0.96 million ha is utilized. This water area has produced 3.7 million t in 2008-09. A network of 429 FFDAs has been established in the country. Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA) were set up in each district for delivering a package of technologies, practices, training and extension besides financial assistance to the beneficiaries. The projected figure shows that by 2020 India will achieve 11.8 million tonnes of fish production , where marine capture will contribute only 3.3 million tonnes but freshwater and enhancement(reserviours etc) together will contribute 7.97million tonnes (Sugunan, 2010). Different types of carp culture techniques are followed . Major species cultured are rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypothalmitcthys molitrix). Carp culture with low input yields 1-2 t/ha/yr, medium input 3- 6t/ha/yr whereas 10-15 t/ha/yr has been achieved with high input (Katiha ,2003). Currently the average annual yield is around2.2 t/ha.

 

Apart from carp culture, sewage fed fisheries (2-5t/ha/yr),integrated agriculture- livestock isheries(0.5-2t/ha/yr),polyculture of carp and prawn (fish 3-4t and prawn 0.3- 0.5t/ha/yr), pen and cage culture are practiced in the fresh water system. Country produces over nineteen thousand million fry per year. Necessary capacity for feed production also exists. Catfish (Clarius batrachus), Singi (Heteropneustes fossilis), Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) are also giving promising results. The potential for farming in running cold waters and reservoirs is also being developed. Development of grow out technologies of several other non- air breathing cat fishes viz. Mystus seenghla, M.aor, Pangasius sp. have been taken place. During 2008-09 country have achieved seed production of 24,143 million fry. States like Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Gujarat are considered to be major inland fish producing states in the country. The state Chhattisgarh also contributes almost 2% of the countries inland fish production, which is encouraging for the state to enhance the same to generate more livelihoods for its people.

 

Overview of Fishery Sector in Chhattisgarh State:

Chhattisgarh, the 26th State of India, was carved out of Chhattisgarh on November 1, 2000. Located in central India it covers an area of 135,133 sq km. Raipur is the capital of Chhattisgarh. Chhattisgarh is bordered by Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the south, Orissa in the east and Chhattisgarh in the west. The state lies at 17°46' N to 24°5'N latitude and 80°15' E to 84°20' E longitude. There are 16 districts in Chhattisgarh : Bastar, Bilaspur, Dantewada (South Bastar), Dhamtari, Durg, Janjgir-Champa, Jashpur, Kanker (North Bastar), Kawardha, Korba, Koriya (Korea), Mahasamund, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, and Surguja. This newly born state of Chhattisgarh state has been a cradle of aquaculture for over seven decades where fish seeds was imported and reared to table size and re- exported as there was huge demand for fish with lucrative returns. There are three categories of available water resources in the state, i.e. village ponds, irrigation tanks and reservoirs.

 

Catch profile:

District wise Production data of main sub  sectors  (Village  pond aquaculture, irrigation and reservoir aquaculture):

Average productivity in the village pond in the state is 2.1tonnes/ha (Table 04) and that of reservoir is 0.172 tonnes/ha, total catch from the river was 1477 tonnes during the year 2008-09. Five districts among 18 districts (16 plus 2 newly formed) under CG are most potential in fish culture and those are: Raipur, Mahasamund, Dhamtari, Durg, Bilaspur and Janjgir. During the year 2008-09 Durg have produced highest of 22750 tonnes followed by Bilaspur (17563 MT), Raipur (16994MT), Mahasamund (14408MT), Dhamtari (12912MT). The districts with poor production are Koria (3602MT), Kondagaon (851MT), Narayanpur (341MT) and Dhantwera (233MT)

 

II REVIEW LITERATURE:

International Status:

Smoking of fish is done for the enhancing of flavour and texture (Robinson, 1983). Smoking of under utilized fish species is becoming an area of great interest (Shaiu and Chai, 1985 and Davis 1986). Philip (1981) studied the role of natural plant based flavouring agents in the preparation of flavoured smoke products. Dilion et al.

National Status: -

 

Jawahar Abraham and Sukumar (1992) studied the microbial stability of smoke cured fishing products. Sukumar and Velayutham (1994) studied the efficacy of different smoke generating materials to serve as an alternative to saw dust in the production of fish marketing product and found that coconut fiver could serve to a best alternative for saw dust for smoke generation. Leelabati and Vishwanath (2000 and 2001) studied the quality of fish marketing products form freshwater fish of Manipur. Gopakumar, (2002) gave a detailed account of smoked products of India and stressed the need for technology upgradation in smoked products. Karthikeyan et. al. (2007) studied the quality changes in smoked freshwater fish from the markets of Manipur during storage.

Inter disciplining relevance:

 

The proposed problem is related with fish processing and product has inter disciplining relevance with nutritional value, nutrition, microbiology, preservation, demand and market.

 

Objectives:

In the above context the present work was proposed with the following objective.

1.     To understand the socio- economic profile of fish market.

2.     To study the level of knowledge, adoption and attitude of indigenous traditional technical knowledge in post harvest of fish.

3.     To understand the reasons for occupied fish market by Fishermen.

4.     Conducting consumer acceptance studies on the newly developed fish marketing products.

5.     Transfer of new technology of production of less hazardous fish marketing products to the fisher folk and entrepreneurs by  conducting  training programmes.

6.     To assess problem and constraint of fishermen and consumer.

 

III. RESEARCH DESIGNED AND METHODOLOGY:

Schemes and Leasing systems for Fishers:

Fisheries Department of CG implements the following schemes for promotion of livelihoods of the fishers in the state.

       Production and distribution of fish seed.

       Development and strengthening of Cooperative society.

       Supply of quality seed/fingerling for stocking.

       Assistance for fish seed production and stocking.

       Training for the fish farmers and arrangement of study tours to the other states for cross learning of the effective technology.

       Development of reservoir and riverine fisheries.

       Production of Asian cat fish (Magur)

       Promotion of prawn culture, an assistance of Rs 15000/- is allotted for SC/ST farmers for polyculture.

       Providing assistance for nets and boats-subsidy of 10000/- is allocated for each beneficiary.

       Providing assistance for fish seed rearing- provision of subsidy of 30000/- is made available for each beneficiary for purchase of net and boat .

       DoF also implements few welfare schemes like

 

i)     Group accidental insurance scheme,

ii)   Savings cum Relief Scheme,

iii) Construction of houses for fishermen.

 

Leasing system:

Leasing right of the water bodies rests on different authorities: i) water bodies up to 10 ha average area is leased by the Gram Panchayat, ii) above 10 ha up to 100 ha water bodies are leased by the Janpad Panchayat, iii) Above 100ha up to 200 ha water area is leased by the Jila Panchayat. DoF have kept the authority to provide lease of the water bodies above 200 ha. These water bodies are leased out to the fishermen cooperative societies by the department. A recent amendment has been brought that the water bodies ranging between 200 to 1000 ha. will be leased out to the Fishermen Cooperative societies by the department, where as water bodies above 1000 ha to 5000ha will be allotted to Chhattisgarh Matsya Mahasangh on royalty basis. Lease period on each case has been extended for 7 years , which was earlier 5 years and the lease rent is Rs.2000/- per ha with an annual increment of 10%. DoF also maintain a list of priority for providing lease (GO no: F/11/2/36/2002 t.24.03.2003).The priority will be followed as per the following chronology:

1.     Registered Fishermen Cooperative.

2.     Fishermen group.

3.     Individual fisherman

4.     Persons displaced on account of submergence caused by irrigation.

5.     Self Help Group in absence of above four

 

Note: Water body below 1.ha is allotted to individual fishermen and above 1 ha is leased to fishermen society and groups

 

Significance of study:

The above mentioned research project and its study will be highly significant the level of adoption, impact of local fish market, to find the reasons for adopting traditional practices by fishermen in Raipur district and to explore their own rationale behind the use of this knowledge. The fishermen have evolved various technologies in fisheries over a period of time by trial and error, continuous observations and evaluation to use the traditional practices in this field.

 

 

Origin of Research Problem:

 

People of this area mostly fish eaters but they are more interested in catching fish then culturing them, unscientific catching of fish has resulted in decline of fishes in natural water bodies. Since in low lying area construction of artificial ponds is not feasible due to high cost and seepage natural ponds should be leased to interested persons/societies, on nominal terms and condition.

 

Women from rural area may an important role in establishing and form in food habits of the families; proper nutrition is for good health of any one. The rural women particularly need to be educated. The Fishermen have evolved various technologies in fisheries over a period of time by trial and error, continuous observations and evaluation to use the traditional practices in this field. Considering the above facets on attempt in the present study will be done.

 

District Raipur has six blocks out of these we has purposively selected three blocks. A total of 25 fish farmers / fisher folk for these three blocks would be randomly selected those are using this traditional market fish practices. A total of 90 consumer respondents would be randomly selected. The factor influencing fish consumption would be estimated using suitable economic models. Based on the results of the study marketing strategies would be suggested for each block to improve fish marketing of fish based on consumer needs.

 

Statistical analyses:

Data will be subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Duncan’s multiple range test will be used to compare differences among individual means (Duncan, 1955).

The study has focused mainly on the fisher community of different districts in Chhattisgarh. It has used both secondary research of the available information and Primary Household Survey. A list of persons met during the course of the study is available in the Annexure, along with a selected bibliography.

 

1.     Secondary Data Collection:

Annual reports and other documents published by the Department of Fisheries, the Department of Panchayat and Rural Development of GoCG Articles and scientific communication published by different authors and institutions related to Inland aquaculture with special reference to Chhattisgarh.

It needs to be mentioned that reliable data on several aspects relevant for a study on livelihoods, production of fish and fishing communities was not available. In cases data was also conflicting and this is a limitation that needs to be kept in mind.

 

2.     Primary Data collection:-

       Development of questionnaires for the fish market survey:

A detailed questionnaires has been developed by the project team which will be reflected demographic profile, socioeconomic conditions of the local communities, women participation and wages in different types of fishing activities, access to basic amenities of life, educations opportunities, food security, available marketing facilities , existing money lending system etc.

       Training workshop for the survey groups:

Orientation program has been conducted to the 5 member survey team on participatory livelihood analysis, semi structured interviewing and focus group discussion for different actors involved in the fishery sector.

       Field visit by the subsector specialist:

Subsector specialist have visited eight districts in CG covering all types of aquatic resources like village ponds, irrigation tank and reservoir and its users. He has interacted different level of Govt personnel both of DoF and CGSIRD. Interaction with PRI institutions at GP, Janpad level have been made by the specialist. Local , Janpad and District level market have also been covered.

       Interactive Buzz session:

An interactive buzz session was conducted by the specialist with ICAR scientist at CIFRI on the policy and potentiality of fishery based livelihood for CG.

       Computation and analysis of the information:

All the questionnaires collected from the field staffs and computation has been doneby using software to analysis the current status the women fisher folks and poverty.

       Final analysis and strategy development :

Final analysis has been done on the basis of survey reports. Analysis highlights the following:

       Issues in fishermen communities in CG

       Current status of fishers in the area

       Demographic profile

       Socioeconomic feature

       Participation in institutional units, i.e. Cooperatives, SHGs, CBOs or NGOs

       Available Credit facility to the entrepreneurs

       Vulnerability context and Identification of issues for the fishing community

       Best practices

       Inflow-outflow analysis

       Marketing and value chain

 

Year-wise plan of work and target to be achieved for three years.

The work will be done as per following scheme.

 

First Year Plan

·      Development and pre-testing of survey schedule and conduct of survey among the fisher folk of Raipur city.

·      An existing traditional fish market production will be standardized by charges in preservatives, procedures and smoked deposition technique.

Second Year Plan

·      Development and pre-testing of survey schedule and conduct of survey among the fisher folk.

·      Analysis of data with statistical tools for consumption pattern.

·      Preparation and submission of final report.

 

IV. METHODOLOGY:

The study was conducted in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. The list of Fishermen was prepared, from the list, 25 Fishermen were selected as respondents with the help of equal interval method of random sampling. The present study deals with the status of fishermen population of fish market of Raipur of Chhattisgarh, because this fish market is more prominent in sale of fish and fish farming development on the basis of natural resources and biodiversity among all blocks of Raipur district. An exploratory research design was used in the investigation and the data were collected by personal interviewed method with the help of structured interview schedule. And find out the statistical significance of the uses of fish angling and catches of fish, which smoked in relation to the extent of sale fish marketes in market. The collected data were analysed and interpreted in view of objectives of the study.

 

V. FINDINGS:

[A] Socio - economic profile of Fishermen:- The study revealed that about 44 per cent of the Fishermen were from middle age group categories followed by young and old age groups, seventy six percent of the fishermen came from backward class followed by scheduled caste and scheduled tribe. Majority of the Fishermen belonged to nuclear family (84.00 %), and had big size families (56.00 %). The average family size was five members and having ish farming as major occupation (64.00 %). Regarding the size of land holding, 92 percent of the respondents were landless and 56 percent were illiterate.

 

Table - 1 Personal and socio - economic status of Fishermen

S. No.

Characteristic

Category

Number of responde nts (n-25)

Percentage

(A) Personnel

 

(1) Age

(a) Young (Upto 35 yrs)

08

32.00

(b) Middle (35 to 50 yrs)

11

44.00

(c) Old (Above 50 yrs)

06

24.00

 

(2) Education

(a) Illiterate

14

56.00

(b) Can read and write

05

20.00

(c) Upto primary

05

20.00

(d) Middle

01

04.00

(e) Upto higher secondary

Nil

Nil

(f) Graduate and above

Nil

Nil

 

(3) Caste

(a) General

Nil

Nil

(b) Other Backward Class (OBC)

19

76.00

(c) SC

05

20.00

 

 

(d) ST

01

04.00

 

(4) Family type

(a) Nuclear

21

84.00

(b) Joint

04

16.00

 

(5) Family size

(a) Small family (Upto 4)

11

44.00

(b) Big family (5 and above)

14

56.00

(B) Socio-economic

 

(6) Occupation

(a) Trapa-cum-fish farming

16

64.00

(b) Agriculture

02

08.00

(c) Dairy

03

12.00

(d) Fishermen (Only netting)

04

16.00

 

(7) Size of land holding

(a) Landless

23

92.0

(b) Marginal (Upto 1 Ha.)

02

08.00

(c) Small (Upto 2 Ha.)

Nil

Nil

(d) Big (More than 2 Ha.)

Nil

Nil

 

(8) Farm power and Implements

(a) Boats

08

32.00

(b) All nets

25

100.00

(c) Tube well

Nil

Nil

 

(9) Farm experience

(a) Low (Upto 5 yrs)

Nil

Nil

(b) Medium (Upto 10 yrs.)

04

16.00

(c) High (15 yrs. and above)

21

84.00

 

(10) Annual income

(a) Low (Upto 25,000/-)

06

24.00

(b) Medium (Rs. 25,000 to 50,000)

16

64.00

(c) High (Above 50,000)

03

12.00

 

In the case of farm power and implements majority were having all types of net and boats (88.00 %), followed by cool box and tube well and high level of farm experience (84.00 %). The annual income of respondents were medium income group Rs. 25,000-50,000/- (64.00 %). The findings indicate that the respondents had fairly satisfactory economic status as majority of them were engaged in other occupations also, besides fisheries.

 

[B] Knowledge of Fishermen: Knowledge level of the Fishermen showed that a good majority (52.00 %) of the Fishermen had medium knowledge level followed by low and high knowledge level about the fish preservation practices. Almost all the respondents were having knowledge about the composite fish culture practices but to the varying degree. This may be attributed to their needs, interest and other environmental factors.

 

 

Table - 2 Distribution of Fishermen according to the level of knowledge of fish preservation practices

Sl. No.

Categories Level of adoption

Number of respondents (n-25)

Percentage

1.

Low (Score upto 5)

05

20.00

2.

Medium (Score 6 to 15)

13

52.00

3.

High (Score from 16 and above)

07

28.00

 

[C] Adoption of traditional practices of post harvest related technologies: - The study further revealed that 64.00 percent Fishermen had adopted indigenous traditional technical knowledge in post harvest of fishes at medium level category, while 24.00 and 12.00 percent high and low adoption categories, respectively. The possible reason for medium and fell in low level of adoption might be lack of skill in operating the available practices and financial constraints.

 

Table - 3 Distribution of Fishermen according to the level of adoption of indigenous traditional technical knowledge in post harvest of fish

Sl. No.

Categories Level of adoption

Frequency (n-25)

Percentage

1.

Low (Score upto 5)

03

12.00

2.

Medium (Score 6 to 11)

16

64.00

3.

High (Score from 12 and above)

06

24.00

 

(D) Extend of attitude: The categorization of fish market men according to extent of attitude of fish market production in Table- 4 shows that 76.66 percent of the fish market men found to have adopted practices to high extent,

 

Table - 4 Distribution of Fishermen according to their level of attitude of indigenous or traditional practices of fishes

Sl. No.

Categories Level of adoption

Frequency (n-25)

Percentage

1.

Low (Score upto 3)

03

10.00

2.

Medium (Score 4 to 7)

04

13.34

3.

High (Score from 8 and above)

18

76.66

Only 10.00 percent of them were found to be low attitude. It may further be noted that 13.34 percent of smoked growers were found to be medium attitude.

 

(E) Reasons perceived by Fishermen towards post harvest works of fish processing :- It is taste and medicine uses of fish markets (100.00 %) was the most important reason that completed the Fishermen to continue adoption of indigenous of traditional practices of smoking of fishes. The other reasons for were parental occupation (84.00 %), poor economic condition (76.00 %), market is suitable for smoked (92.00 %), long distance of ice centre (72.00 %), a good occupation (60.00 %), high return, as a cash crop and provide employment to farm families. As much as 84.00 % of Fishermen were aware about physical, chemical and biological control measures. Over half of the respondents had knowledge of chemical control measures against sucking pests, insect and worms. High percentage of respondents possessed knowledge about biological control measure like use of Trapa and local fish. Lack of knowledge about management of fish pond, disease identification and control were the areas wherein Fishermen needed training.

 

Table – 5 Distribution of Fishermen according the reasons behind fish market processing

S. No.

Reasons

Number of Respondents

Percentage (n-25)

1.

Poor economic condition

19

76.00

2.

Market is suitable for fish market

23

92.00

3.

Parental occupation

21

84.00

4.

Long distance of ice centre

18

72.00

5.

Do not feel education as important

15

60.00

6.

Taste and medicine uses of fish markets

25

100.00

7.

High return (Cash crops) and maximum employment to farm families

15

60.00

8.

Physical. Chemical and Biological control measures

21

84.00

9.

Best quantity and quality of local fishes easy available

23

92.00

10.

Lack of knowledge about, management of fish pond, disease and training regarding – fisheries

22

88.00

 

(F) Impact of marketing pattern in local area:-   Regarding the impact of fish market, which smoked in relation to the extent of sale fish marketes in market it may be noted from Table- 6 that majority of the fishermen mostly accepted two modes for marketing of fishes. These modes were direct sale to consumers (86.67 %). Sale through middlemen (10.00 %) and sale to whole sellers (03.33 %), respectively.

 

Table- 6 Distribution of tribal according to impact of uses of fish angling by them

Sl. No.

Modes of market

Frequency (n-30)

Percentage

1.

Direct sale to consumers

26

86.67

2.

Sale through middle men

03

10.00

3.

Sale to whole sellers

01

03.33

 

(G) Problems faced by them and the reasons for adopting traditional practices of smoking of fishes: - The tribal people were asked to pinpoint the reason for adopting traditional practice in use of smoking of fish encountered by them in adoption and the same are presented in Table-7 the data indicate that the a sizeable proportion of tribal stated as reasons for adopting traditional practices of fish angling as traditional practices (100%) due to availability of fish angle material in rural area and their house i.e - bamboo stick, baits (wheat flour/ earthwarm), wing vein of peacock, bamboo craft bag for collecting of fishes, knife and fishing rod etc. The problems like non-availability of leasing pond at local area only depend on rivers by fish angle (86.66) and more difficult to construction of pond (93.34%), non-availability of fish net material (83.34%), non-availability of suitable market price of culture fish as compare to fish marketes (60.00%). ).                            Majority of the tribal expressed that they faced the difficulties like expensive nature of chemicals, preservatives, ice, plastic box, package (90.00%), and non- establishment of processing and storage facilities (unit/plant) near by (96.66%), tribal stated the problem non-availability of electric current regularly for freezing of fishes (76.66%), as reasons for adopting traditional practices of fish angling and fish market processing as traditional practices of Raipur district.

 

Table- 7 Distribution of fishermen according to problems faced by them and the reasons for adopting traditional practices of smoking of fishes

Sl. No.

Content

Frequency (n-30)

Percent. (%)

1.

Reason for adoption of fish angling as traditional practices:

(a) Availability of fish angle material in rural area and their house i.e - bamboo stick, baits (wheat flour/ earthwarm), wing vein of peacock, bamboo craft bag for collecting of

fishes, knife and fishing rod etc.

 

30

 

100.00

2.

Pond Leasing system:

(a)    Non-availability of leasing pond at local area (depend only on rivers)

(b)   More difficult to construction of pond

 

 

 

26

86.66

 

28

93.34

3.

Harvesting and marketing:

(a)    Non-availability of fish net material

(b)   Non-availability of suitable market price of culture fish

 

 

 

25

83.34

 

18

60.00

4.

Preservation and processing method (for adopting of fish market practice):

(a)  Expensive nature of chemicals, preservatives, ice plastic box, package

(b) Non-establishment of processing and storage facilities nearly

(a) Non-availability of electric current regularly for freezing of fish

 

 

 

27

90.00

 

29

96.66

 

23

76.66

 

VI. CONCLUSION:

The study concludes that the maximum Fishermen were of middle age group, had medium level of education, backward class and belonged to nuclear family. Trapa -cum- fish was their main occupation. They had big family size and possessed had all types of net and boat as the main source of farm power and implements. Respondents had medium knowledge, medium adoption and favourable attitude toward fish market and preservation of Fishermen. The findings of the present study indicated that majority of the Fishermen were high adopters of recommended traditional smoked technology. Efforts on the part of extension agency are required by way of organization guideline, training and demonstration for motivating and considering Fishermen in adoption of recent traditional technology to maximize the production and increase the profit. Lack of knowledge and technical guidance about use of growth regulator for fish culture and lack of knowledge about treatment of fish disease, expensive nature of chemical, preservatives and ice were the major reasons for adopting traditional practices by fish market men. So as to increase the use of growth regulators and fish protection/disease measures, the extension agency should impart technical knowledge by organizing training and visited, advisory service with provide timely guidance to the Fishermen. The findings of the present study indicated that majority of the tribal were high adopters of traditional practices of fish angling and smoked processed fish under aqua tourism. Lack of technical guidance about use of fish angle/ rods towards growth regulator for catching of fish and lack of knowledge about fish culture, expensive nature chemicals, preservatives, ice plastic box, package of material were the major reasons for adopting traditional practices by tribal. The extension agency should impart technical knowledge by organizing training and visited, advisory service with provide timely guidance to the tribal. Efforts on the part of extension agency are required by way of organization guideline, training and demonstration for motivating and considering tribal especially tribal women in adoption of recent traditional technology to maximize the production and increase the profit. Now tribal have shown interest in fish culture by acquiring Panchayat tanks on lease or by constructing ponds on there own land. On Survey it was found that the tribal have more practical knowledge and active participation in fish culture practices as fish angling alongwith their spouses towards aqua tourism development. Therefore, keeping in view certain unique factors of the state like associate to work for economic increasing, small land holding, less mechanization. And also if tribal were given proper education and training in the field they can be of much help to improve their socio-economic status. The need of the hour is to utilize various tourism development schemes for evolving profitable fish culture through fish angling, serve of fish markets to tourist/ visitors which can generate self employment for tribal. The participation of Fishermen in fisheries is well established and highlighted by several workers. In Chhattisgarh also, women play an important role alongwith men in fish farming, several reports revealed that the reasonability of fisheries is almost completely shouldered by women in this state. On Survey it was found that the women have more practical knowledge and active participation in fish culture practices alongwith their spouses. Therefore, keeping in view certain unique factors of the state like associate to her work for economic increasing, small land holding, less mechanization. And also if women were given proper education and training in the field they can be of much help to improve their socio-economic status.

 

VII. REFRENCES:

1.      Amit Kumar Shivkumar and Atteri B. R. (2005): Production and Marketing of Fresh Water Fish in The State of Haryana, Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing Vol. 19 No 2 pp. 83

2.      Beohar Bipin and Rajak Sunil (2005): Marketing of Fish in Jabalpur District of Chhattisgarh: A Case Study of Adhartal Fish Market, Indian journal of Agricultural Marketing Vol. 19 No 2 pp. 76

3.      Gaikwad Vijay D. and Pawar C. T. (2007): Inland Fishing and Fish Production Potentiality and Productivity in Upper Krishna Basin (Maharashtra): A Geographical Enquiry, the Research Journal of Geographers Association Goa (GAG) Vol. IV. No. 1 pp 25-30

4.      Iqlas Ahmed and Ramesh K. S. (2001): Innovative Management of Needs of Freshwater Prawn Grow – Out Ponds, Foshing Chimes, National Fisheries Journal of India, Estd. 1981 Vol.21 No.2 pp. 24-27

5.      Mohammad, Sheik. M., (2001). “Women” problem and prospects of an entrepreneur, Kisan World, Oct-2001, Vol-28, No-10, Pp 54-56.

6.      Paul, S. (1992). Pre-harvest and post-harvest management of flood plain fisheries, compendium, CIFRI, Barrackpore, Vol-2, Ed. By Y.S. Yadav, and V.V. Sugunan, Pp 141-143.

7.      Chandra, S., 1987, Fishery co- operative movement in India, Fish coops, 2(2): Page -11- 15.

8.      Gadhia, M., Patel, P.B. and Gadhia, P.K., 1999. Socio - economic conditions of Fisher community and status of Fisheries around Kakrapar Atomic Power station, Fishing Chimes, 19(9): 49 - 51 pp.

9.      Paul, S. (1992). Pre-harvest and post-harvest management of flood plain fisheries, compendium, CIFRI, Barrackpore, Vol-2, Ed. By Y.S. Yadav, and V.V. Sugunan, Pp 141-143.

10.   Jagtap, Pradip Kumar D., 2000, Knowledge and attitude of fishers of greater Mumbai towards Joint ventures in Deep Sea Fishing, Fishing chimes, Vol-20, No.-9, Dec.-2000, 48 - 49 pp.

11.   Mohammad, Sheik. M., (2001). “Women” problem and prospects of an entrepreneur, Kisan World, Oct-2001, Vol-28, No-10, Pp 54-56.

12.   Sasmal, Debasis and T.A. Qureshi, (2001) Inter-relations of the multitudinous factors influencing the socio- economic status of Fisher communities at Hoshangabad, Fishing chimes. Vol-20, No-9.

13.   Rai, R.N., Mukul Shrivastava, D.K. Jaiswal and H.C. Khare (2003). A study of extent of knowledge and its utilization regarding- Nutrition by farm women in Sihora Block, JNKVV Res. J., Vol-18, No-14, 1984, Pp 102.

 

 

Received on 12.12.2022            Accepted on 16.05.2023

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Int. J. Tech. 2023; 13(1):35-44.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-3915.2023.00004