Transdermal patch with natural polymer for sustained release: A review


Arti*, Neha kumara, Nitian Bharti Gupta

Sri Sai College of Pharmacy, Badhani, Pathankot, Punjab, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



This review's goal is to construct and develop Faviparivan matrix type transdermal drug delivery systems that utilise natural polymers like Pectin/wool. The research was based on Favipiravir transdermal patches with a matrix base. The Solvent casting method was used to create this patch. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of antiviral medication transdermal patches for improving bioavailability. DDS is locally administerded medicine. This transcutaneous a patch is pharmaceutical preparation of varries size contains one or a lot of API and delivers the drug to circulation. The human skin is instantly external surface drug delivery system. . The human skin surface is containing 10-70 hair follicles and 200-250 sweat ducts on each sq. centimetre of the skin space. It’s the foremost pronto external organs of the shape. This is often thinking about the skin as a web site of drug application each native and general impact. Formulate transcutaneous patches is physically evaluated with relevance thickness,weight variation, drug content, flatness, durability, folding endurance, proportion of wetness content and water vapours transmission rate. All prepare formulations indicate smart physical stability. Transcutaneous drug delivery system is gift to beat the difficulties of drug delivery oral route. A pad is medicated adhesive patch that's deposit on the skin to deliver a particular dose of medication between the skin and into the blood. It promote healing to associate injure space of the body. A transcutaneous drug is self-contained, separate dose kind. It conjointly offer controlled unleash of the drug for extend amount of the time.


KEYWORDS: Transcutaneous drug delivery system, Chitosan, Favipiravir, wool fat.



transdermic drug delivery system is locally applies medication within the style of patches that deliver drug for general effects at fastened and controlled rate. transdermic drug delivery systems (TDDS), additionally called “patches,” is dose forms style to deliver a therapeutically effective quantity of drug across a patient’s skin. Transdermal delivery not solely gives controlled, constant administration of the drug. Some vital blessings of transdermic drug delivery are limitation of internal organ first-pass metabolism, improvement of therapeutic potency, and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug.


Transdermal Patch:


Figure 1: Diagram of transdermal patch.


Basic components of TDDS:

The components of stratum devices include:

a.     Backing films

b.     Unleash liners

c.     Pressure-sensitive adhesives

d.     Active ingredients

e.     Permeation enhancers

f.      Different additives

g.     Small porous or semi-permeable membranes

h.     Drug


Polymer matrix:

compound matrix is ready by diffusion of drug in liquid or solid state artificial compound base. Corporations concerned within the field of stratum delivery consider specific compound systems.

The subsequent criteria are going to be glad for a compound to be employed in a stratum system:

·       Polymers area unit biocompatibility and chemical compatibility with the drug and different parts of the system like penetration enhancers and PSAs. This can be providing consistent and effective delivery of a drug throughout the product’ meant period and will be of safe standing.

·       Mass, glass transition temperature and chemical operate of the compound that the desired drug diffuses properly and discharged through it.The compound and its change merchandise could also be nontoxic or non-antagonistic to the host.It shall be simply manufacture and manufacture the specified product and cheap.

·       This polymers use for TDDS is classified asNatural Polymers: e.g. polysaccharide derivatives, Zein, Gelatin, Shellac, Waxes, Proteins, Pectin, wool.


Synthetic Polymers: e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, vinyl resin, synthetic resin, polypropene, Polyacrylate, Polyamide, Polyuria, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Polymethylmethacrylate, Epoxy etc.


Drug: For with success increasing stratum drug delivery system, the drug shall be selected with charge. The follow is a few of the fascinating properties of a drug for stratum delivery.


Physicochemical properties:

·       Substances area unit mass of but a thousand Daltons is suitable.

·       The drug would have specific degree of solubility in each oil and water (ideally larger than one mg/ml).

·       The substance is temperature but two hundred °C. Concentration rise across the membrane is directly proportional to the log solubility of drug within the lipoid part of membrane.


Biological properties:

·       Drug shall be terribly potent, i.e., it shall be effective in few mgs per day.

·       The drug is brief biological half- life.

·       The drug is non- pain in the ass and non –allergic in human skin.


Permeation Enhancers:

This compounds that promote skin porosity by adapt the skin as a barrier to the flux of a desired penetrant.


Ideal characteristic of chemical penetration enhancers:

Ideally, penetration foil reverse scales back the barrier resistance of thecorneum while not broken viable cells.

Some fascinating properties for penetration enhancers with the skin:

·       This can be a non-toxic, non-irritating and non-allergeric.

·       This could be a no medicine activity inside the body.

·       The penetration enhancers shall be work unidirectional, i.e., they ought to enable therapeutic agents into the body once preventing the loss of endogenous materials from the body.


Backing Film:

Backing films play important role within the TDDS (as long as there Packaged within the pouch), as throughout the utilization of the system.


The operate of backing film:

a.     To guard the steadiness of the system.

b.     To have an effect on skin diffuse and tolerant, rely on breathability.

c.     It’s going to be versatile, snug and a lot of gift sensible affinity with the adhesive.


These regular materials used as unleash liners are:

·       Polypropylene,

·        Synthetic resin

·       Saran

·       Polyesters, PVC, and

·       Nylon.


Release Liners: A unleashes liner may be a film coated with Associate in Nursing anti-adhesive agent.

a.     To guard the system as very long time.

b.     It’s within the package, and it's removed simply before the block of the TDDS to the skin.

c.     The unleash liner is choose terribly rigorously.

d.     This is many mixtures of film and anti-adhesive coating that area unit acceptable, and therefore the alternative created depends on the ingredients of the system.


This regular film used as unleash liners:

·       Paper-Based,

·       Plastic Film-Based

·       Composite films.


Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives: each category of TDDS, pressure-sensitive adhesives.

·       PSA play necessary role.

·       Support because the matrix that carries everything active (such as additives and permeation enhancers).This is suggests that for creating the patch persist with the skin.

·       This is many categories of PSA and everyone is employed for a really specific reason

·       The PSA is persisting with the skin like a shot and keep there for as long because it is required. the proper alternative of PSA is essential impact on the steadiness of the system, the discharge of the active, correct administration of the drug.


Various type of TDDS design:


Figure 2: Diagram of transdermal patch design.


Drug in matrix: Skin-controlled transdermic systems with no membrane, which Include drug-in-matrix layer between unleash liner and backing layers. During this variety of system rely upon characteristics of the skin to manage the speed at that the drug disperses into the body.


Drug in reservoir with a membrane: A transdermic system that contains a rate-controlling membrane, with the drug in a very reservoir. During this variety of system is employed once the delivery compound is of upper relative molecular mass and thus harder to deliver Trans dermally.


Drug in adhesive: A system during which the drug is embody directly into the adhesive, instead of as a separate layer. This method is employed smaller molecular compounds, that ar among the simplest compounds to deliver via transdermic means that.


Multi-layer Drug-in-Adhesive System: Transdermal system, those adapt the speed of delivery of a drug via the employment of layers of drug, membranes and adhesives.This type of system is especially helpful once prolonged drug delivery is desired.


Properties of Trans dermic drug delivery: The economical transdermic drug delivery is Prepare by considering 3 factors as drug, skin and also the vehicles.


It is divided in 2 categories as biological factors and chemistry factors.


A. Biological factors:

1.     Skin condition: Acids and alkalis, several solvents like chloroform, wood spirit injury the skin cells and rise penetration. Morbid states of patient adapt the skin conditions. The complete skin is healthier barrier.

2.     Skin age: The young skin is a lot of spongelike than older. Youngsters is larger sensory for skin consumption of poisons. This skin age is one in every of the factors touching penetration of drug in TDDS.

3.     Blood supply: Changes in outer circulation will have an effect on transdermic absorption.

4.     Regional skin site: Thickness of skin, nature of stratum and density of attachment web {site} to site. These factors have an effect on outstanding penetration.

5.     Skin metabolism: Skin metabolite, steroids, hormones, chemical carcinogens and a few drug. Skin metabolism is confirm ability of drug permeate through the skin.

6.     Species differences: The skin thickness density of postscript and organic process of skin vary species to species; therefore have an effect on the penetration. B. chemistry factors


i.Skin hydration: important improvement in skin porousness is determined on prolonged contact with water. Thus, association becomes vital think about skin permeation.


ii.Temperature and pH: The permeation of drug increase 10 fold with temperature modify. The diffusion constant decrease as temperature hit. Weak acids and weak bases disconnect rely upon the pH scale and pKa or pKb worth. The quantity of drug in unionized decides the concentration of drug in skin. The, temperature and pH scale ar vital issue touching drug penetration.


iii.Diffusion constant: Penetration of drug depends on diffusion coefficient of drug. The constant temperatures the diffusion constant of drug rely upon properties of drug, diffusion medium and interaction between them.


iv.Drug concentration: The fluxes ar proportional to the concentration gradient through the barrier and concentration gradient shall be higher if the concentration of drug are a lot of across the barrier.


v.Partition constant: The optimum partition coefficient (K) is need permanently action. Drug with high K isn't able to leave the macromolecule portion of skin. Also, drug with low K won't be penetrating.


vi.Molecular size and shape: Drug absorption is reciprocally associated with relative molecular mass, tiny molecules penetrate quicker than giant ones.


Following are ideal molecular properties for transdermic drug delivery:

·       Macromolecule and water solubility of drug.

·       Partition constant of drug.

·       Freezing point not up to 200oC.

·       The pH scale in vary of 5-9.


Advantages of TDDS:

·       It’s stable and management blood level

·       It is Long period of action.

·       Acceptable for administration of drug having:

·       Poor oral convenience.

·       It is Drug action is ceased.

·       No interaction with stomach and enteric fluids.

·       Doses Frequency get reduces that improves patient compliance.

·       Adverse effects get reduced.

·       Self-medicated is feasible.

·       Drugs cause irritation to skin.

·       Problematic to manage giant dose i.e. a lot of than (10mg/day).


Disadvantage of TDDS:

·       Problematic to manage the massive dose, i.e. over ten mg/day.

·       Ionic medicine produces complications.

·       Medicine taking size over five hundred John Dalton don't seem to be acceptable for TDDS.

·       Tough to realize high plasma drug concentration.

·       Long adherence creates anxiety to patient.


Preparation Of Trans Dermic Patches: Transdermal drug delivery patches is ready by innumerous strategies.


Mercury Substrate Method: during this methodology essential quantity of drug is dissolved in planned quantity of chemical compound answer at the side of plasticiser. The on the far side answer is to be stirred for a few time to provide the same dispersion and it's keep aside till air bobbles removed fully and so poured in to a glass ring that is positioned over the mercury surface in a very glass Petri dish. The speed of evaporation of the solvent is controlled by holding a reversed funnel over the Petri dish. The dehydrated films air to be hold on in a very desiccator.


Solvent Evaporation Method: during this methodology the answer is ready by dissolving weighed quantities of Polymers, Plasticizers, and Drug in to solvent compositions. The casting answer is discharged into glass petri dishes and dried at temperature for twenty-four hours for solvent evaporation. The patches are removed by peeling and take sq. dimension of 3×3cm. These patches are unbroken in desiccators for two days for any exposure to air Associate in enfolded in an aluminium foil.


Physico Chemical Characterization of Patches:

Physical appearance: All the transdermic film is visually examined for color, clarity, malleability and flatness.


Tensile strength: The films were evaluated employing a surface instrument (Introns Universal Model) ready with a five hundred g load cell. Film ribbon in millimetre X ten millimetre of dimension and free from air bubbles or physical deficiencies was control between 2 holds positioned at a distance of one cm. For the period of activity the film was drawn by prime wheel clamp at a rate of ten mm/minute. The force and elongation is measured once the films bankrupt. Sizes were run fourfold for every film.


Swelling index: Weighed items 1×1 cm2 of film were absorbed in H2O at zero.5, 1, 2, 4, eight and twenty four hrs. Saturated films were aloof from the medium at determined time, blotted to eliminate excess liquid and weighed instantly. The swelling index was designed from the burden increase as follows:

Swelling Index = (W2-W1)/W1 wherever W1and W2 ar the burden of the film before and once web within the medium, one by one.


Weight uniformity: The films of numerous batches were dried at 60° C for 4hours before testing. 5 patches from every batch were properly weighed in a very digital balance. the standard mass and also the stock abnormality values was calculated from the particular weights.


Thickness of the films: The thickness of the drug-loaded chemical compound film is measured at 5 totally different purpose use a digital micrometer. The typical and variance of 5 reading ar calculated for every film.


Folding endurance: The folding endurance is measured manually for the ready film. A strip of film (2×2 cm) is cut equally and perpetually collapsed at identical place until it stony-broke. The total of times the films is crumpled at identical place while not breaking gave the precise worth of folding endurance.


Water Vapour Transmission (WVT): The film is stable over the glass bottle with Associate in Nursing adhesive having saturated answer of faviparvin. The cell is occupied out and evaluated once one, 2, 3, 4, 5, VI and seven days of storage. Water vapor transmissions ar calculated by taking the variances within the weight of the film before and once the study at regular intervals twenty four h for at a complete amount of seven.


Percentage wetness Content: The ready film is weigh singly and unbroken in a very desiccators containing salt at temperature for 24hrs. The film is evaluated perpetually till they showed a relentless weight. Worth is that the proportion of wetness content was calculated victimisation the formula.The weighed films preserved in desiccators at temperature for 24hrs. The film was weighed ofttimes till showed and a relentless weight. The share worth of wetness uptake was calculated victimisation the formula.


Percentage of wetness uptake = 1 × one hundred


Flatness: Longitudinal strip was cut out every film, one from the middle and 2 from the either aspect. The length of every stripe was restrained and distinction within the length due to non-uniformity within the flatness was measured by causative proportion constriction, considering 1/3 constriction is equivalent 100 percent flatness.

Percentage of constriction= L1-L2/L2×100

Wherever, L1=Initial length of every strip, L2=Final length of each strip.


Drug content: trans dermic films of known space (3.066 cm2) is take tiny items and brought into a 50mlvolumetric flask and 25ml of phosphate buffer pH scale seven.4 was side, gently heated to 45°C for quarter-hour, and preserved for twenty-four hrs. With irregular shaking. Then the amount was created up to 50ml with phosphate buffer pH scale seven.4, similarly, a blank was approved out employing a sober patch. The answer was sieved and also the absorbance remained measured at 273nm.



On the bottom of the earned review, this text is to blame for appreciated literature on transdermic patches, structural parts, and categorization and assessment tools very important for the preparation, development and clinical performance of the assorted sorts of patches. transdermic patches of faviparivan check that remained effectively by solvent evaporation technique .Evaluation of the ready patches in terms of physical look, weight, thickness, flatness, durability, wetness absorption, wetness uptake and drug content uniformity mention that the tactic operating for formulation of the transdermic patches is reproducible and positive outstanding quality and uniformity in patch options with minimum variability.



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Received on 06.06.2021            Accepted on 22.12.2021     

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Int. J. Tech. 2021; 11(2):83-89.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-3915.2021.00012